IMPHAL, Sept 28: The Youths’ Club, Brahmapur felicitated Khwairakpam Bishwamitra for winning the best director award instituted by Kakching Shahitya Seva Samiti. The felicitation programme was held today at the club premise.
Spiral of Silence and Meitei Nongsha
Leader Writer : Paojel Chaoba
There are many issues brought out in prime focus by the mass media. Issues which may pertain to removal of the Armed Forces Special Powers Act, law and order scenarios, criminal incidents, state of corruption and government mal-administration etc.
An individual is vexed with personal issues along with the perplexing problems haunting the State at present. The problems may vary according to the social status of the individual, but none of us is beyond the purview of worry, since we are human beings and strife with imperfections.
Despite all the hardships, there is the hope that ills affecting one and the society will one day ultimately disappear with the passage of time. Everyone wishes for a Utopian society but do we work towards that direction remains the introspective question.
To discuss an interesting theory, ‘The Spiral of Silence’ by Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann, one of the most eminent figures in the field of contemporary communication studies. Her theory expounds that people will be unwilling to publicly express their opinion if they believe they are in the minority but will be more vocal if they believe they are a part of the majority. Thus, the more marginalized you become, the less you speak and so spiral into a fully insignificant position.
There are individuals who openly voice their opinions in the public domain, it is said that there are certain individuals at the top of the spiral. They can be hardcore nonconformist or the avant-garde ones. The former has nothing to lose of stating their demands or opinions even despite their lack of intellect and diplomacy. The latter and avant-garde are considered to be the artists, intellectuals and those who feel that they are ahead of the times.
Sometimes, the non -conformist despite the lack of justification in their highlighted issue are viewed by the individual as what may be the actual want of the public at present and remains silent. The media also highlights such individuals or organizations for the matter and leads to formation of a public opinion as the individual prefers to remain silent and ‘go with the flow’.
Thus those who voice occupy the top spiral and the true desire of the public due to the silence of the individual remains marginalized and at the bottom of the spiral.
It may be said that the mass media play a large part in determining what the dominant opinion is, since our direct observation is limited to a small percentage of the population. The media have an enormous impact on how public opinion is portrayed, and can dramatically impact an individual`s perception about where public opinion lies, whether or not that portrayal is factual.
As every theory, may be debatable but what one feels is that the Manipuri public suffers from the spiral of silence. It may be safe to state that petty corruption is furthered by the people`s perception that it is absolutely normal to pay an official for some service that should be provided by the state for free. If people assume that everyone pays bribes and that most people just put up with it, then corruption will become part of everyday culture .The fewer people protest, less people will actually be against corruption, or exclaim out loud that they are against it. But if people rally together and speak up against corruption, it is felt that a climate of opinion will be created against it. And if they speak up loud enough, more and more people will join in the just cause because they don`t want to be isolated as outsiders that support bribery. Eventually, the anti corrupt stance will become the dominant stance.
There is a song by popular Manipuri artist Sanaton, ‘Meitei Nongsha maming ta ngairae, pangal youdrae, meepal tangae chari tatlae, khongba ngamdrae’, in short ‘The Manipuri Lion has lost its voice and cannot roar’. It is high time that the Spiral of Silence is broken in our Society and let the Manipuri Lion have the courage to find its lost voice and roar out for justice.
WORLD HEART DAY
By Dr . Kshetrimayum Kala Singh
INDIA HAS ONE OF THE HIGEST NUMBER OF HEART PATIENTS IN THE WORLD
WOMEN HAVE SMALLER HEARTS AND SMALLER ARTERIES THAN MEN,
A WOMEN IS MORE THAN TEN TIMES AS LIKELY TO DIE OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE AS SHE IS TO DIE OF BREAST CANCER.
WOMEN ARE MORE LIKELY TO DIE AFTER THEIR FIRST HEART ATTACK.
This year the world heart day is observed on 29th September, 2012 all over the world. We will make 2012 the year of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention among women and children.
The 1st world heart day was observed on 28th September, 2000. The aims and objects for the observation were to give awareness of the heart disease, its fatal consequences & prevention.
Cardiovascular disease caused 29% of all deaths globally each year, making it to world’s number one killer. Over 80% of cardiovascular disease deaths take place in low and middle-income countries.
Women underestimate their cardiovascular risk, even though almost half of the 17.3 million annual deaths occur in women. A women is more than ten times as likely to die of cardiovascular disease as she is to die of breast cancer.
Heart disease is the number one cause of death in American women and a significant cause of morbidity. In 1999 in the USA alone, over 2, 60,000 women died from heart attacks and other coronary events, whereas over 41,000 women died from breast cancer and 63,000 died from lung cancer. As with men the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in women rises with age, though women typically develop symptoms of heart disease around 10-15 years later than men. Women who have had their ovaries surgically removed are more likely to have a heart attack and to suffer a heart attack at an earlier age.
The biggest health problem that women face is heart disease. Rheumatic heart disease, hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis, diabetes & stroke are major heart disease in women. Equal number of men and women die each year from cardiovascular causes. Women are in fact, more vulnerable to hearth disease as they have smaller hearts and narrower arteries than men .This apart, women who are diabetic, menopausal or have a family history of heart disease face a greater risk. Another contributing factor is ethnicity. Women from certain groups, face a higher –than average risk compared to others. While a risk factor like ethnicity cannot be altered, others than are self-induced like smoking, physical inactive, high cholesterol, high blood pressure and obesity can.
In developing countries, half of all death of women over 50 are due to heart disease and stroke. Stroke accounts for a higher proportion of death among women than men. Among women nearly 3 million deaths by stroke occur each year. But coronary heart disease affects women approximately 10 years later than men, possibly because of the protective effect of estrogen prior to the onset of menopause. Again women with hypertension experience a risk of developing coronary heart disease that is 3.5 times that of female with normal blood pressure.
Diabetes (type II) is a 1st degree cardiovascular risk factor and it is a more serious risk factor among women. Again obesity leads to an increased risk of premature death due to cardiovascular problem like hypertension, stroke and coronary heart disease.
PREVENTION OF HEART DISEASE.
“IT IS NEVER TOO EARLY AND NEVER TOO LATE TO START TAKING CARE OF YOUR HEART” said professor Shahryan sheikh president of world heart federation. The public is educated through the media very intensively and this yielded good results.
At least 80% of premature death from heart disease & stroke could be avoided if the main risk factors, tobacco, unhealthy diet & physical inactively are controlled –
WORLD HEART FEDERATION
Prevention is still the best cure for coronary heart disease; some of the step is given below.
1. Evaluate your family history. Heart attack, hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes and stroke have a strong correlation with family members. If either of your parent suffered with heart attack before the age of 50, you have an especially high degree of risk.
2. It is well known that changes in life style, which includes a prudent diet (low in saturated fat, salt and refined sugar and high in fibre) is highly essential for the prevention of heart attack. Butter, high fat milk, buffalo milk, ice creams, lassi are very good sources of cholesterol and triglycerides which lead to heart disease and ultimately heart attacks.
3. Stop smoking and avoid passive smoke. The risk of heart attack as well as stroke is significant increased with smoking. Tobacco in any other form Zarda, Gutka, Khani are equally bad as smoking.
4. Maintain your ideal weight. Individuals with central or abnominal obesity or those with frequent weight shift have increased risk. Keep your body wt within 5 kilogram of your ideal weight.
5. Diagnose hypertension and treat it properly. The risk of heart attack increases as the blood pressure increases.
6. Obtain a diabetic evaluation. People with a family history of diabetes and/or excessive weight are especially at risk for diabetes. Heart disease is five time more prevalent in diabetics. Fasting blood glucose of below 100 mg/dl and post prandal blood glucose level of 140 mg/dl is a good control.
7. Evaluate your personality and consider a stress reduction programmed. People who frequently display aggressive and hostile behavior, who anger easily and have a low tolerance for frustration have an increased incidence of heart attack. Meditate at least 10 minute every to cut down stresses.
8. Start a daily exercise programmed. Exercise is one of the few ways to increase HDL or “good cholesterol”. Exercise at least half an hour for every day. Walking is the best way to exercise.
9. Know your total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and Triglycerides levels. The desirable levels are, for total cholesterol; less than 200 mg/dl, for triglycerides less than 130 mg/dl. A 10% reduction in total cholesterol reduces the risk of heart attacks by 20%. Cut down on food rich in cholesterol (egg, lever, brain).
10. Check lipoprotein levels which are an independent risk factor for heart.
11. Have your blood antioxidant level check (Vit. C, Vit. E. beta-carotene and Selenium). Have plenty of fruits in your lunch and dinner. They provide plenty of fibres and anti oxidants which can prevent heart attack. Omega 3 fatty acids, present in fish, has been shown to reduce cholesterol. Consume plenty of vegetables and salads everyday.
12. Do not walk after a heavy meal for at least one hour. Enjoy night sleep at least 2 hrs. after dinner. Avoid sleeping on left lateral position.
Extreme Care and Precaution should be taken when our age is reaching 40 because Hypertension, Diabetes and Heart Attack are beginning at this age “YOUR HEART IS PRECIOUS AND TAKE CARE FOR IT. HE LOVES ONLY ASPIRIN NOBODY ELSE”.