By R. Rungsung
The word `Justice` is derived from the Latin word `JUS` which means anything that is proper and reasonable. The concept of justice is as old as philosophy itself. The theory of justice is used as both law and as social reality – i.e. legal and moral justice, law and morality. We are morally obliged to the state therefore the state is a means to the fulfillment of moral ends. Our obligation to obey the laws of the state depends on the fact that these laws are intended to secure justice or moral rights of the INDIVIDUALS. Justice may be also regarded as a concept concerned with the order of society as a whole and as an expression of the rights of an individual i.e. the natural rights of an individual which maintains that men have certain absolute moral right such as the right to life, to liberty and to pursue happiness. Human view maintained that the state is designed to guarantee and to protect the Natural rights. Justice is the foundation of social morality and without it the rest would collapse, (we all know, our land today, is ruled by corruptions without any moral compunction and undesirable incident are rampant these days).
In Plato`s Republic the work `Justice` means what is commanded by some governing `Power` – the power that be. What is just depends on the interest of the strong i.e. those who happen to posses power of government. But does the interest of the strong promote the good of the whole? The Governing Power should command with a view in their minds so as to realize the GOOD of the citizens over whom they exercise control. The good governance for the well-being of all citizens of the land/state is the ultimate goal for end of justice.
Even if Justice in distribution has been tolerably secured within a particular community, various circumstances may arise to disturb it. The right way of meeting such disturbances was referred by Aristotle as Corrective Justice.
The disturbance may take place here and there by accident i.e. without the choice of any individual by agreement between individual or by the interference of one group with another group. Accidents can be, to some extent, compensated by insurance and provision is sometimes made by the state. On the other hand, justice may consist of breach of contract, robbery or personal violence, which may be verbal or physical. The principle of `eye for an eye` and `tooth for a tooth` is not one of compensation but of revenge and two wrongs do not make a right. All that the governing body (the state government) can do is to try to present such action by some sort of protecting agency – Police and Army personnel (here in Manipur, we found sometimes opposite).
Justice is truth in action. A long time of cases shows that it is merely of some importance, but is of fundamental importance that justice should not only be done, but should manifestly and undoubtedly be seen to be done. Martin Luther King said “Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.” Ruling power using suppressive measures coupled with self-gains do not correspond to corrective justice.
We alt want to have a just social order where justice should be there in every department of life. In order to establish justice in the society, we have to fight Racialism, Communalism, Castism and other kinds of injustices, tyrannies and oppressions. Today we are in the channel of `the rich become richer and the poor become poorer` which the governance of the state turned blind eyes to `JUSTICE`. The call for justice has become the CRY in the desert. The cry in the valley is echoing in the hills. Will the Red accept the cry of Sana Leipak? Is there justice in the voice for equality? Any land and state must ensure to have good governance to enjoy justice.
JUSTICE RELATION WITH EQUALITY
The concept of Justice and equality are so closely related that one can`t be separated from the other. It can be said that one is incomplete without the other. Unless there is some sort of equality in social and economic matter (I repeat Social and Economic), it can`t be said that is a JUST society. To understand the concept of Justice we should understand the concept of equality.
The term Equality has several facts in democratic ways. Such as, (1) Social Equality, (2) Civil Equality, (3) Economic Equality and (4) Political Equality before the law of the Land/state under the general heading of EQUALITY. The idea equality is fundamentally a leveling process where people demand the same treatments from the state to all and resented and abhorred any distinction between one individual or between communities regarding rewards and punishments. No equality no liberty and thus troubles gained and added more and more upheaval in the state governance. Religiously hill people have big eyes looking longingly with earnest heart to live in peace with valley people, In order to ensure Justice, one must know the principle of `Dignity of Labour` and completely shun to become a parasite on others.
PEACE WITHOUT JUSTICE
Humanitarian aspect certainly demands justice that peace is the accepted end of all the nations. It requires a positive and constructive world order, where individual, groups and states eschew the desire to dominate and exploit each other, but live in co-operation and mutual give and take (aiding one another). This means – peace needs a new life-style based on justice. One can never say to an empty stomach person -“Go in … peace, have a good day”. The poor person has been sidelined, robbed, oppressed, discriminated and left empty handed and the robber is filled with stolen properties amassing wealth thinking high and telling within himself. “I don`t have to worry for tomorrow – eat, drink and satisfy yourselves”.
India today is in the channel of apathy, malfeasance and corruptions. Nothing is done without a bribe and the mouths of justice is stuffed with gold. The flood of money that gushed into politics today is a pollution of democracy. Without democracy, tolerance and human rights for all, no peace is truly safe, (to me and in my humble mind, I see many or more people go for heavy meals, shining clothes and luxurious travelling as the symbols of status discarding what justice demands).
PRESIDENT BECAME REFUGEE
What a beautiful house he lived in, what a glossy and shining clothes he wore. However, there were things he can`t discard and throw away which were haunting him day and night – sleepless nights, sudden awaking from deep sleep due to bad dreams, closed doors and windows and peeping through holes. Riding and travelling in luxurious cars (limousine) with throbbing heart beats and afraid to be seen where he/she is going or going to meet someone and somewhere. The powers he possessed blinded his minds and heart.
He was afraid to go alone without companions. Years ago, Idi Amin of Uganda travelled in five limousines fixing his EFFIGIES in other FOUR and he sat in other one to confuse who he really was, in order to evade attack. Strong and powerful, but fear ruled over him. Peace didn`t live in his heart. He fled his motherland and died as a refugee in other`s land.
Peace means without disturbance and a life of calm. Peace without justice is no peace. The peace of God, which passeth all understanding, shall keep your hearts and minds through Jesus Christ-(Philipines). Justice is truth in action. Today, Manipur is boiling on many fronts and looking at New Delhi only. Some are acting like SAINTS at Delhi and living like DEVILS at home.
He is unworthy of life that causes not life in others. As such, he is unworthy to live who lives only for himself. And that person is wading unsafe in unknown water. Let us use good means and God will give us the blessings we need.