Meetei na Scheduled Tribe Oiraknabagi Lallongda Eikhoigi Wafam

1528

Wahoudok

Meetei sing asi India gi constitution na Scheduled Tribe ama oina masak khnggadabani haibagi khongjang ama Manipur da mami taarakli. Khongjang asi Meetei singgi maraktagi meeyoi khujok amana sagatlakpani. Masiga mari leinaba lup semduna, meechang khomba eikhoina ooba fanglakli. Khongjang asina meeteisingda paojelliba wafamsing asi mapung oina makhagi wafamsing asini:

(1) Meetei haibasi tribal ni aduna tribal oina masak khnggadabani

(2) Meetei Scheduled Tribe ollabadi chingmee tammi nungsinaragani

(3) Meeteina Scheduled Tribe ollabadi eereipakki ngamkhei kairaroi

(4) Meeteina Scheduled Tribe ollabadi Meetei chaokhatlagani

Mathakki wafamsing asina wakhal humlaga chatpa Meetei kayana khongjang asibu sougatpa hounarakli. Khutlai paiba lup kharanasu khongjang asida fongna natraga lotna sougatpagi thouong kharasu leire haina ngangnarakli. Hainariba wafamgi matung innadi, ningtambagi lan asi thajaba watsillakle natragana karigumba mai paklakpa tarabasu, madu yamna saangba lambee oigadabanina, lan mai paktringei asida Meetei furupki kannaba khara touramba tangai fade. Adubu hairiba Scheduled Tribe onbagi pandam asi Manipur meeyam apumbagi pandam oibadi yadri. Khongjang asigi mayokta leiba meeyoi natraga lup kayasu leiri. Khudam oina hairabada: (a) hannana Scheduled Tribe ki list ta masak khanglaba furupsinggi lup kayana Meetei bu scheduled tribe onba yaroi haibagi wafam fongna thamnarakli. Meeteina schedule tribe onkhrabadi tribal gi chakthung khudingmak Meeteina loukhragani haibagi yaningdaba fongdokli; (b) Meetei singgi maraktasu, hannana Scheduled Caste ki list ta leiraba meeyoi kayana Meetei bu chabak oina Schedule Tribe onba pamdari. Meetei furuppu schedule tribe oina onkhrabadi, makhoina fanglamba caste reservation quota amasung atei khudongchabasing adu manglagani haina yaningdaba faori; (c) Furupki mingchatki wafam yenglakpada, Schedule Tribe haiba minggou asi hanthaba mee furupki minggouni haina khanba Meetei kangbusingna Meeteibu Scheduled Tribe onba asi pamdabasu yaori.

Mapung oiba Wafamsing

Mathakkhi wafamsing asi mathang sitna neinaduna thamjaningba wafamdi:

(1) Meetei haibasi tribal ni aduna tribal oina masak khnggadabani

(a) Tribe ama haiba asi ee mari tinnaba (imung manung sagei natei hourakpham paari poori tinnabasingna mahousagi khongchatta meeyoi chollup oina tinsinjarakpa), amata oiba mamalon, nat, chatnabi, laininggi thajabana lipun oiba; mahousagi potthokta tangjaduna hingba, makhoi maselgi marakta sendonggidamak tuhatpa namhatpa yaodana, laira inakkhunbagi khennaba khallon naidaba, thong mannaba khunnaigi lipun-ga sagonnaba sinlamchat kanglonda yumfam oiraga semba meeyoi furup amani. Tribe ama haibasi meeyoi furup adugi puwari tangkak amani. Masidagi manglomda chatkhattuna, sinmitlonda ahongba lakpaga loinana, khunnailondasu ahongba laktuna, tribe ama oibagi saklon adu kaitharak-ee. Manglomda chatkhatlaklaba puwari tangkak adu amuk hnna maninglomda han-gattuna chatpagi wafam leite.

(b) Meetei hairiba furup asi mapung oina tribal gi puwari tangkaktagi lanthoktuna, feudalismgi tangkaksu tungoinaramlaba furup amani. Ngasidagi chahi chamagi mamangda kanagumba British lairik eeba ama anina Meeteibu tribal ni haina makhoigi meetyengdagi haifet waheina pllamba leirambadi yai. Madugi puwari matamduda eeramba wafamduna ngasigi puwari tangkakta hingliba Meetei khunnai asigi masak takpadi yaroi. Amaromda, British loilam leingakloigi mapung oiba leingaklon poramsingda Meetei bu tribal oina leingakhiba natraga neinakhiba leite. Meeteigi houkhraba puwari tangkaksing mapum oina yengbadasu tribal sinlamchattagi lanthoraktuna, ningthou panduna feudalism gi chatnalonchat kayagi kanglonda lishang sitna hinglakpagi puwari leiri. Madugi puwari tangkak adu loikhre.

(C) India gi Constitution na Manipur gi furup kharabu Scheduled Tribe haina masak khangbadi lei. British pallingeida Manipur gi furup kharabu, makhoigi sinmitlon amasung khunnailon-gi fivam yengduna, tribal haina masak khngkhiba adu India gi Scheduled Tribe Order 1950 ki makhada adumak paring chattharakpani haiba yai. Masida wahang kharasu thokli. Tribal bu chaokhat-hannabagidamak semliba leingak-pathap sing aduna 1950 dagi ngasifaobagi, chahi 65 asida, furupsinggi sinmitlon amasung khunnailon adu tribal gi tangaktagi ahongba karisu purakpa ngamdrabara? Natragana, tribal gi saklon da ahongba sukleimak leitrabara? Masi kupna neinarurabadi, tasengnamak Schedule Tribe haiba asi leingaklichat (political) eethil ga sagonnana semba political kanglup ama oina leire haina louba yai. Maramdi, chahi 65 henna sanglaba India gi Capitalism safu asigi eeronnungda furup khudingmak, mamang tangkaktagi sagonnarakpa  tribal nat amasung chatnabigi lemkhak saklon (remnants of tribalism) khara adu nattana, mahousagi Tribal oibagi puwari tangkak adu loikhrabani.

(d) Mathakki wafam asiga loinana eikhoina tangai fadana khngminnagadaba wafam ama leiri. Madudi, Manipur da mashagi oiba industrial capitalism di oithokpa ngamdana leiri. Adubu India na challairiba capitalism asigi fibannungda Manipur gi furup khudingmak chusinkhiduna, eikhoigi eereipak asi capitalism eethilda da yumfam oiba khunnai (capitalist society) ama oirabani. Hairiba capitalist khunnai asigi manungda furupsinggi marakta yelhoungeigi tribalism natraga feudalism gi nat amasung chatnabigi lemkhak saklon khara ooba fangba yai. Masimakna Meetei natraga khundaminnariba furup amata thanggei sengba tribal khunnaigi puwari tangkak aduda hingbadi oidre. Hainingba wafamdi; Meeteibu tribe ni haiba marei asidi India gi leingaklon-gi fibannungda semliba Schedule Tribe haiba political kanglup aduda channanaba yetke haina yetpa marei amani. Masi Meetei na tribal oirubagi oifam thokpa hak natte; political eethil amaga loinana khongjan sagattuna Meetei bu kanglup aduda chalhanduna meeyoi kharagi kannaba khara louhounabagi lallong amani.

(2) Meetei Scheduled Tribe ollabadi chingmee tammi nungsinaragani

(a) Meetei Scheduled Tribe ollabadi chingmee tammi nungsinragani hairi. Makhoigi wafamdi, tribe haiba asi furup amabu masak takpa athiba hanthaba minggou amani. Meetei na tribe oidaba maramna athiba minggou asiga loinana hanthaba mityeng tribe singda yengduna leire. Minggou asi Meeteinasu fanglabadi furupki napal adu hntharagani. Meetei masamaknasu makhoisu hanthaba thakni haibasi khnglaktuna tribal bu hnthana yengloi. Amaromda Meetei bu awangba thakni haina hn-gatna hanggoina yenglamba furupsingnasu Meeteibu makhoiga thak amattada hingminnaba furupni haina ooba ngamlagani. Furup khudingmak minggou tinnaminnaduna mannaba thak amada eekai khumnaragani. Aduna Meetei na Scheduled Tribe onduna, India gi leingak-pathapki mateng louduna, khetnaba minggousing asi leitem mannana temthokpa tangai fade.

(b) Makhoina chelliba paojel asi kupna neinaba mathou tai. Wafamdi: (i) Manipur gi furup singgi marakta, furupki thak khennei haina lourabasu, minggouda anem awang lei haina lourabasu; thoina thouoiruba toudana, furupki pallon thugaiduna, charou mourounaba, ngai sen oiminnaba, matao sannaba, yumlonnaba, londinnaba, thouburoi oimannaba kaya su leiri. Aduna, minggou haiba asina furupki marakta matam chuppada thugaiba ngamdaba cheikhal oiduna lei haibada yaroidaba matousingsu ooba fangli; (ii) Furupki mingda semba lupsiggi marakta muknaba kayasu lei, aduga muknadana londinnana chatminna lup kayasu leiri; (iii) Furupki maikhum kuptuna, furup masel yeknahannabagi lallong sannaba lupsinna thakpa langda thuduna matam matamgi oina furup masel oongkhatnaba kayasu leikhi. Adumakpu, furupki lanfam kharada thokkhiba tamthiba thoudoksing adu nattana, furupsing asi matam chuppada yeknadunata leiba, oonnaba thengnaba mafam khudingda hatna sunadunata leiba haibadumakti oide; (iv) Kanglupki natraga furupki oongkhatnaba asi minggouna oihanba oongkhatnabani haina wahanthok pibadi lan-gani. Amaromda, minggou honglaga natraga tinnaraga furupki lallong loigani haibasu lan-gani. Tribal haina minggou tinnaribasinggi marakta Naga-Kuki gi oongkhatnaba, Kuki-Paite gi oongkhatnaba, Naga furup masel gi marakta oongkhatnaba eikhoina ooba fangli.

(c) Eikhoina tangai fadana kupna yenggadabadi senmit-leingaklon (political economy) asini. Matou karamna India gi senjao-lallonlichat (capitalism) gi senmit-leingaklon asina eereicha furupsinggi marakta oongkhatnaba mara chatthahanduna leiribage haiba asi wahang amani. Mathakta pnkhre, eikhoigi khunnai asi yelhoungeigi furupki lemkhak lichatsing kaya leirabasu capitalist society amani. Masina kari oihanbage hairabadi:

(i) Indiagi senjao-lallonlichat (capitalism) asi na khunnaigi khallon kaya semli. Indiagi ngamkhei manung asida leipak sin-thungna chaokhatpa mara tahanba ngamde. Thong mannana khunnai hupna chak-hong-ngahongba ngamde. Industry amasung agriculture chaokhatpa mafamsinggi potthokta ateina adumak tangjahanduna hingbagi kanglon amada adumak chattharakli. Hairiba potthoksinggi keithel suppai paiba (monopolist) singna asonba khunnaisingda changsinduna lunkhop sagoon touri. Lannai sendonglichat (privatisation) amasung lallonbana leipak lanna lunkhoppagi halengdaba lichat (liberalisation) asi paktaknana chattharakli. Makhoising asina eikhoigidamak industry, factory, agriculture amasung atei potthok puthokpagi thourangsing paikhatlakpagi wafamdi leite. Senjao-Leingakloi singgi thoudang haibabu makhoigi senjao-lallonlichatki safuna neihatpa tuhatpa eikhoigumba khunnaida, makhoigi mayokta hourakliba/ hourakkadaba ningtambagi lan thingnaba hotnaba haiba asini. Masigi lallong ama oina leiteng chakthak (reform) ki potlam khara chaithokpa amasung maduna khoichak oiduna madubu munnahanbada furupsinggi marakta achum aran afa fatta khnthaba ngamnaraktabani. Masina singchep oiraga furuploi loichasinggi (loi challaba meeyoising) wakhal asi nakal amaromda thaktok-handuna thambani. Masigi lallong eereichasing asi makhoibu kanana namthak touduna sagoon touba asi ooba ngamdabani.

(ii) Senjao-lalllonlichat ki (capitalism) lunkhoplichat amasung namhatlichat safuna eereichasinggi fivam sotthabagi tallak asida, masidagi kannaba louriba khurakki eena lai saba hanglai kayasu leitaba natte. Hanglai thoubunaising asigi thouburoidi eereipakki angam athou oiriba thikadar sing asini. Thikadar sing asigi mathoudi leingak chupli painaba hotnabani. Thikadar leingak asigi ngakloudi makhoina semgatchaba yokkhatchaba bureaucrats, amasung atei loisanglensinggi famnaibasing asini. Makhoi punna mannaraga eereichasingdagi sagoon touba yaoribani. Makhoigi pandamda lamdamsigi leibak leihao, khutsumee (labour or productive forces), mahousagi potthoksing semgat sagattuna leipak chaokhat-hanbagi wafam yaode. Makhoidi hanglai oina mapunsi chuppa eereipak amasung eereichasingbu lallonlaga sendal lambee oiribani. Indiagi senjao-leingakna eikhoigidama pirakpa lousal (eikhoigi leibak India da tinbagi pifam thokpa rent or grant) adu makhoi hanglai masel munnaraga lannaigi lun-thum peksillibani. Makhoi masel gi marakta fam munnarakpa, sendong munnarakpa amasung loutunarakpa matamda; democracy gi marumda makhoina furupki eerang sagattuna masa masagi loujnam pujanam mantiknaribani.

(iii) Eereipak meekhut chankhiba amasung eereichasinggi fivam sottharakpa matamda wahang makhal makhal hangnarak-ee. Kanagumbasingna masa masagi furupki nat, saktam, senthok mangsillakle haibagi meepaibasu faorak-ee. Lairabagi awaba koknaba, chaokhatningbagi meethoi meehen ningbagi mayai adu ningba thungnaba hotnaba haibasidi masana pokcharakpa eethilni. Adubu makhoina mapum oiriba sinmit-leingaklon-gi (political economy: leingaklon amasung sinmitlon-ga sagonnariba mari) kuyom asi ooba ngamde. Apunba meetyeng amasung apunba khongjang semgatpagi mahut; eigi eigi furup chaokhat-hangadabani haina khanba hounarak-ee. Matou asumna furupki mingda lup kaya semgatnarak-ee. Masa masagi lallong paikhatnarak-ee. Sinmit-leingaklon asigi mayokta yaol khongjang changbagi mahut; sinmit-leingaklon asigi thouburoisingda tangjaraga nijaraga furupki yaifaragani haina chakni-feenibagi wakat oina tounarak-ee. Masina maram oiduna luchingbasingbu eelai laina thikadar-leingakloisingna makhoigi khongbunai oina chingsinbasu ngamkhi. Matou asumna furupki lupsing asi thikadarsinggi ngaklou oina fouham tanarak-ee. Asum toubana kannare haina khanba kayanasu furupki maikhum kuplaga furuppu lallonba hourak-ee. Masi ooba ngamdaba eereichasingna furup masel oongkhatnabaromda mai onsinkhi. Furupki oongkhatnaba asina thikadar-leingakki sagoon toubagi lallon asi kupsinduna thammee.

(iv) Mathakki mapung oiba thouong ahum asina leibak semgatpa eereichasing chaokhatpadi purakte. Furukpi lallongna wakhal thammaikhrabasing thikadar leingaklon-gi khongmee lanmee oirak-ee. Achumba pamba meeyoi kayagi machin namfu hafuna meelli. Kayabuna selgi khoichak thaduna tumil leihalli. Makhoigi mayokta fongna leplakpasingbuna meehat meepul touduna manghalli. Furupki awaba koknaba furup ateida maral thangjilli. Furup masel yengthinahannaba hotnei. Furupki lallongbu sugatpa paojelloi oina NGO amasung intellectual kaya semgatlak-ee. Furupki mingda semba khutlai paiba khutpusingna NGO amasung intellectual kayagi pambom tingduna furupki eerang sagatnaraka asisu pak sandorak-ee. Eigi eigi furup ki saktamna ateidagi henna wanghan-gadabani; eigi eigi furupna mahellabani, eigi eigi furuptamak chaokhatkadabani, eigi eigi furupna waribagi maramsi atoppa furupnani, eigi furupki fangfam thokpa hak atoppa furupna munkhrabani, eigi eigi furupki ningtamba amasung lamgi ngamkhei semgadabani, asinachingba furupki ngakchao thekpa lichat pak sanna sandorak-ee. Adubu kupthana yenglurabadi, furupki mingda semliba khutlai paiba khutpusing asiga thikadar-leingakloising asiga, makhoigi marakta yetnaba yanadaba kaya leiramba tarabasu, lunkhop lichattadi punna sagoon touminnari.

(d) Eikhoigi meeyengdadi; furupki minggou ollaga furupsing hekta nungsi channarakkadaba leite. Miggou ollaga furupki marakta leiriba oongkhatnaba kaya asi nemhanba ngamloi. Minggou ollaga tangdu leitaba apunba khunnaigi saktam ama sagatpa hektamak oithokloi. Minggou ollaga nungsi channaragani haiba asidi mayambu apangba sibani. Masidi Meeteibu Schedule Tribe ki kanglup ta tin-gadabani haiba lallong adugi meechang, Meetei marakta oot chairaga khomnaba hotnabani. Masi apunba khunnai saktam sagatpa fangloidaba chinhai wahei amani. Furupki oongkhatnabagi maru hulliba India gi sinmit-leingaklon asibu kupsinnaba hotnabani. Sinmit-leingaklon-gi natei chadaba poram asibu semdoknaba hotnaba natte. Sinmit-leingaklon asi fagat-handriba makhei furupki oongkhatnaba asi nemhanba ngamloi.

(3) Meeteina Scheduled Tribe ollabadi eereipakki ngamkhei kairaroi

(a) Meeteina Scheduled Tribe ollabadi eereipakki ngamkhei kairaroi haina paojenba eikhoina thengnare. Wafamdi, ching haiba asiga tribe haiba asiga sagonnei, aduna Scheduled Tribe ollabadi Meeteisu chingda khundaba yaragani haibani. Meeteina chingda khundarabadi Meetei amasung atei furupsinggi marakta henna naknaba londinnaba fanglagani. Amaromdana, Meetei su chingda khundarabanina, chinggi lam asi Nagalim natraga Zale’n-gam gi pandamdagi ngakthokpa ngamlagani. Manipur gi lam machet ama faoba Nagalim natraga Zale’n-gam gidamak faktuna pukhiba yararoi. Henna totsinna ngamkheigi pallon thungaiduna hingminnarabadi, furupki muknabana eereipakki ngamkhei thugaiba ngamlaroi. Ngamkhei kaidrabadi apunba saktam kairaroi. Masigi wafam asi, Manipur gi ngamkheibu kaihanningda meeyoising, maru oina Meetei singgi marakta, henna wakhal kupthana khantharudrabadi, hek nakongna taba achumba wafam oiraboi ningduna yamnamak sougatchaningba wafamni.

(b) Makhoina chelliba paojel asi kupthana yengba mathou tai. Wafam khara panba taragadi:

(i) Chinggi district singda leiriba tribal singgi mapung oina lampu-lichat (land ownership structure) khangdana Meeteina Schedule Tribe ollaga chingda hekna huptuna khundarugani haibasi achumba wakhal oiroi. Chinggi district singda khundariba tribal singgi oina lannai (family), kanglupki (church, organisation) amasung khun-gi (village) lampu-lichat leijari. Lannaigi oina mafam kharada patta paiba paidaba natraga khun ningthouna suppai paiba (mapung oina Kuki-Chin-Mizo singgi marakta) haibasina tonganba wafamni. Adumakpu chinggi district ki lamsing asi lamhang oide; loinamak nakna naknaba khun-gi vap ki ngamkhei manungda chusannaduna leikhrabani. Karamba minou amana (tribe oigera natraga meetei oigera natraga mayang oigera) mafam amada khundaruba haibasi mari leinaba khun aduga yanabagi makha polli. Yabu yanarabadi chinggi district ki mafam amada chahi yangkheigi lousal thiduna Meeteina farm toubasu yaoribani. Yanadrabadi khutkan pangganbana asonbabu tuhattuna khun kaya tankhaiduna khun muthatpagi thoudok kayasu leikhre. Amaromda hairaga, capitalism gi kuyom asida yelhoungeigi tribalism lemkhak lonchat (remnants of tribalism) hwjiksu leiri. Asigumba fivam asida Meeteina Schedule Tribe onduna, wayel pathapki panggal sijinnaduna, chingda Meeteina chollup chollup taha taha khundarugani haibasi furupki eerang thok-hanba oina thokkani.

(ii) Eereipakki tampaklam (Manipur Valley) Meetei khakkini haiba yade. Tampaklam asida tribal kaya khundari. Chinggi districtsing asida Tribes sing khakki oina oobasu lan-gani. Maramdi chinggi lamsingda Meetei masing yamdrabasu khundari. Chinggi districtsing da leiriba ching khudingmak tribal singgi oide. Ching kharadi Meetei gi puwari amasung laining laison-ga tatna thanaba yadana leiri. Masi tribal singnasu masak khangna eekai khumnari. Amaromda, Chinggi district singgi ki chaoraba mafam kaya India gi lanmeena lousinbikhre. Chaoraba mafam kaya leingakna dam saduna lousinkhre. Chaoraba mafam kaya mapan lamgee company singna mining amasung oil drilling gi lousinbikhre. Asikhak nattana masak naiba keithel pumba mayangsingna paisinkhre; Meetei kayasu mafamsing aduda lallon eetik touri. Railways lakpada lousinkhriba lam asi yamlabani. Nouna semgatlakkadouriva Trans-Asian Highway asina lousi-ngadouriba lam asi wakhak chaogani. Adugi mathakta, matamgi khonglei matung inna semgatkhiba amasung semgatlakkadouriba apunbagi oiba institutions, hospitals, public buildings, complexes asinachingba kayanasu lam yamna konkhrabani / kon-gadouribani. Makhoigini haina haina vap ta adumak taoduna leiraga; makhoigi suppai oidraba lam asi adukki matik pak chaokhrabani. Makhoina mulhouba ngamhoudana thikadar leingakki project-singna na lousinbikhiduna eereicha apunbagi oina mangjahouba kayasu leiribani. Aduna chinggi district sing asi tribal khakki oina ooriba amasung oohannaba hotnaribasi araanba wafam amani.

(c) Amaromda yengsi. Furup mayamna khundaminnaba leibak amada, furup khudingmakki thoudang loudrabadi, furup amakhakna leibak adugi ngamkhei kanba ngamloi. Amaromda, furup mayamna totna tinnana khundaminnariba leibak aduda, furupki mingda lallonba lup ama anina apunbagi ngamkhei adubu hektamak thugaibasu ngamloi. Amaromda, furup mayamna khundaminnariba leibak aduda, apunbagi saktam sagatpagi mingda furupki ngakchao thekpa lallong paikhatlabadi; adugumba natei chadaba meeyoi / lup adugi thouong aduna furupsinggi marakta oongkhatnahanba meinam chubani. Makhoigi thouong aduna furupsing adubu chaokhat-lichatki tangkakta pukhatpa ngamloi. Manipur gi fivam asida Meetei na Schedule Tribe ollaga, maduna furupsinggi marakta nungsi channanabagi langdainafam ama oihanba ngamloi.

(d) Wachumlon-gi wahanthok yenglurabadi; Naga singna natraga Kuki singna makhoi makhoigi tonganba saktam sagatchabada kanansu yetluba chumloi. Makhoina India gi fibannungda lengdana leigera leiroira haibasi makhoina loujagadaba firepni. Manipur da tinduna leige leiroi maningni. Makhoi khudingna tongan tonganna hingkhragani haina chap yungna firep louduna amata oina lepkhrabadi, furupki oiba eemu naimu tanabadi yai, adubu, makhoibu atoppa furupna thingluba ngamloi. Adubu masi oithoktriba karigino? Masi oithoktribasi Meetei na thingba khakki oigadouribara? Furupsing asigi khundarol asi mafam kayada furupsing totsinnana khundaminnakhibana, furupki ngamkheiga talliba lamgi ngamkheiga chunnadabasu leibara? Masi maram kharani. Asi nattaba maramsingsu leiri.

(e) Maram amasu khngminnaba tai. Madudi, furupki maikhum kupliba lupsingna, mapanthongda Nagalim, Zalen’gam, Zogam khollao fajahallabasu, manungda sum chaba maramna, khollaosing asigi yumbi mapanggal nopna leiri. Lup sing asi afaba khutlai pairbasu maral mathum yamna leirabasu yaol gi poram mayek sengde. Luchingbasinggi punsirol amasung lallongda yaolloigi gun watli. Onna teinabada, paikhatpa thouongsinda furuppu lallonbiba oina thokli. Makhoina makhoigi furupsingbu senjao-lallonlichatki (capitalism) militarisation amasung project singda ngakpi senbide. Onna teinabada loutunaba yaosinduna mareicha singdagi sagoon touee. Wafam asi gi mayokta chin kangningbasingbu makhoina namthei. Makhoigi thoubunai singgi marakta anem-awang, laira-eenakkhunbagi khallon yamna chaona lei. Masina lup ki manungda muknaba yamna chaona lei. Amaromda makhoi makhoigi furupsinggi maraktasu power munnabagi amasung sendong munnabagi muknaba kaya leiri. Masi makhoina kok-hanba ngamde. Maramdi, makhoina senmit-leingaklon-gi asoibabu chumthoknaba hotnade. Masina maram oiraga, furupki khakki khanba akhuba wakhallon lainana mareichasing wakhalda laichuhankhibadagi Naga-Kuki muknei, Naga furup masel muknei, Kuki-Chin-Mizo furup masel muknei. Muknaba asina eemu naimu taba kayasu thokli.

(e) Maram amasu khangminnaba tai. Madudi, furupki maikhum kuppa lupsing asina furup lallonba asibu pamdaba furupcha kaya leiri. Lupsing asigi farangjai luplon (organisational constraints) kaya asida thajaba ngamlaktaba furupcha masing hen-gatlakli. Apunba panngal sagattuna senjao-leingaklon (capitalism) gi safu asi punna thengnadrabadi chaokhatlaroi khanba ngamba furupcha kaya thorakli. Makhoi sing asi leibana; Meetei, Naga, Kuki-Chin-Mizo singgi maraktagi thorakpa, apun-fambak (common platform) sagatnaba hotnabada achouba panggal oiri. Adubu masida aruba wafam amadi leiri. Apun-fambakki panggal sagatpa haiba asi leiteng chejai khollao khaktana yaroi. Masigidamak; achumbabu ootpa ngamba, eereicha singna thengnariba pukchakki / senthokki awababasingbu kok-han-gadaba sinmitlon thourang paikhatpa ngamba, yaolgi mangal yaolgi poram mayek sengna ootpa ngamba meeyamgi lup (democratic force) mathou tari. Adugumba meeyam lup adu khaktana apun-fambak adugi maikei taktuna furupsinggi marakta leiriba chamamnabasing asi kok-hanba ngamgani. Adugumba meeyam lup adugi wakhallondi ningtamba mannaba khunnaigi wakhallon oigani. Wahangdi; adugumba meeyam lup adu Meeteibu Schedule Tribe on-gadabani hairiba thouburel sing aduna semba lup asi oigadouribara?

(4) Meeteina Scheduled Tribe ollabadi Meetei chaokhatlagani

(a) Meeteina Scheduled Tribe ollabadi Meetei chaokhatlagani haiba paojel amasu fongna / lotna chelli haiba eikhoina ooba fangle. Matou karamna chaokhatkadabo haibagi maram asumna piri: (i) Meeteina Scheduled Tribe ki quotada sarkargi thabak komna fangnaragani; (ii) Scheduled Tribe ollabadi income tax hntharagani / piraroi; (iii) Scheduled Tribe ollabadi Tribal Development kidamak halengba leitana kaitharakpa fund khudingmak Meeteigisu chakthung fanglagani. Amaromda, Scheduled Tribe ondrabadi mangjariba asi karino haiba wafam asida makhoina asumna hairi: (i) Scheduled Tribe ondrabadi Meeteising asi Indian Administrative Servie, Indian Police Service nachingba awangba thakki famthol fangba waragani; (ii) Asigumba achouba famtholsing asi Tribalsingna loina suppai paisinkhrabadi Meeteibu namtharagani. Manipur gi arol athup loina khangdoktuna leibak asi machet tahankhragani; (iii) Meeteigi saktam asi chang yamna takhragani. Wafamdi; mathakki wafamsing asi sijinnaduna makhoina Meetei marakta meechang khomnaba hotnari.

(b) Makhoigi wafamsing asida eikhoina kupna yengsinba tangai fadaba kaya leiri:

(i) Meeteina Scheduled Tribe ollabadi reservation / quota gi khudongchaba fangduna sarkargi thabak komna fanglagani hairibasi karino? Masina fongdoklibasi, matam khudingda Meetei na tribalsinggi marakta meethoi meehenbata oiduna leiragani haibagi thoichat (superiority complex) wafamla? Atoppa tribal sing asidi Meetei ga lamba paaba wagani, aduna Meetei na khudongchaba asi suppai pairagani hairibara? Masina nunggi wakhallon oirabadi Meetei singda furupki ngakchao thekpa eenot piba oina thokloidara? Amaromda yengluragana, Schedule Tribe ki reserved quota da hendokna khourangliba asi Meetei asi Other Backward Classes amasung General Category da leiriba furupsingga lamba tounabada ngamsillaktabagi khudamla? Meeyoibagi thouna amasung hotnabagi mating adu fudok-hanbagi eenot pibagi mahut, sonthahanduna ‘atoppa’ thak amada kumthahan-laga, hannadagi tonna leire hairibasing adudagi khudongchaba munbagi wafamla? Masina karamba tonchat (inferiority complex) amano? Nakal amaromda yenglabasu, Scheduled Tribe ki reservation quota gi khudongchaba fangdouriba asidi meeyoi khujok macha ama khaktani. Houjikti leingak loishanggi thoumee masing downsizing touba halengdabana, apunba misingga chunnana sarkar na thabak kouba haibasi oithoktraba wafamni. Tallak asida lousingkon loisangsing (maheiloisang or educational institution) amasung lousinggi pambei makheisu mamal tangba ayonpot (commoidity) oirakpana lairabasingdi sarkargi saknaiba thabakkidamak matik chana mahei tamba ngamnadrabani. Makhoina awangba famthol thabbakkidamak lamjel yaoba oithoktre. Senja thumja anchan meeraina haraba khunnaida lairabasingna Scheduled Tribe reservation / quota asidagi kannaningai oiba karisu leite.

(ii) Scheduled Tribe ollabadi income tax hantharagani natraga piraroi hairiba wafamsi eereicha khudingmak paktaknana chunnadaba wafam amasu oiri. Meetei marakta lairabagi thak Below Poverty Line oiba yumburelgi meesing masing adukki matik yammi. Makhoidi income tax pibagi senthok thak adu youde. Aduga senjao paiba thikadar singdi matam khudingda adumak hural lonnada tax tagi nanthoktuna leiribani. Khudam oina; thikadar leingakloisinggi senthok yamna nemmi semfu senlep (bank account balance) ta lupa lakh ama faoba leite haina court ki affidavit ootpa ngamba kaya eikhoina thengnakhre. Senthok wangba white collar thabak touba meeyoising amasung registered touba firms/ entrepreneurs singna tax pininglamdaba yai. Adubu makhoina India gi Constitution bu eekai khumnabanina tax asibusu eekai khumnabada kari kaibage? India gi Constitution budi sougatchei adubu tax ti piningde haibagi wafam oirabadi lambee ani lei. Amana, makhoi ‘saving’ yamna touriba makhei natragana khunnaigi mingda maram chana senfam katthoklabadi tax chang hanthagani. Aduga atoppa amana, leingakki tax khomgatpagi lichat (tax regime) asi yaningde haina makhoi khongjang (anti-tax campaign) akanba touba tai. Democracy chatpa leipakni; makhoigi apambaduna meeyamgi apamba oirabadi, makhoina semba leingakni, makhoigi tax komthokfam thok-ee.

(iii) Scheduled Tribe ollabadi Tribal Development kidamak kaitharakpa fund khudingmak Meeteigisu chakthung fanglagani haibasi namthak waheini. Manipur gi tribalsingna chahi 65 henna reservation quota-da chakthung fithung thong mannana fangminnaba leitri. Tribalgi mingda tribal thikadarsing, famthol wangbasing, akhang ahei amadi angam athou michang leibasingna matong chabani. Tribal eereicha lakh kayagi mingdi tribal meeyoi khujok apikpa amana khudong chaba loubani. Tribal chaokhatpagi mingda semliba Autonomous District Council kamdouna mathou touribage? Tribal chaokhatpagi mingda kaithariba Development fund kadomda kanana sagoon touee? Chinggi lamsingda paikhatliba project singgi sel kanana kadomda hondok-ee? Mapithel Dam sabagi kaithakhiba compensation karamba lup na amasung kana kanana hural lonna namfu hafuda matong makhei oiinathokhibage? Asinachingba huran lonna sagoon toubagi wafam amasung wahang kaya leiri. Manipur gi oina India na kaitharakliba lousal (rent, grant, fund) kadaida kanana huralli? Infrastructure saabagi mingda kaithariba project fund, mantri mandol amasung mari leinaba company singgi commission percentage kayano? Project lallonba (dalal) singna percentage kayam louee? Thikadar gi makhutta yourakpadana makhoina kayam matli? Mathang mathang thak naina louhoubana akonbada meeyamgi oina kannabana percentage kayano? Meeteina Tribal ollaga, madugi mingda kaitharakpa senfamsingdugi matong chagadouriba asi kanano? Tribal ollabasu ondrabasu lairaba meeyamdi hannagum hamu hamu, thika lallonbasinggi khuraktagi litthahouba kharaduna chaksang mei muttanaba hotnagadaba mangai. Tribal ollaga Meetei chaokhatkani haiba asidi project lallonbasinggi namthak waheini. Makhoigi akhuba political lallonggidamak Meeteisinggi marakta khongmee lanmee khomnaba namthak waheina oot chaibani.

(iv) Schedule tribe ondrabadi Meetei na awangba famtholgi Indian Administrative Servie, Indian Police Service nachingba thabaksing changba waragani haina Meetei singgi pukningbu loutunaba hotnari. Asengba wafamdi: Eenkhatlakliba Meetei naharolsingda nakhoi thikadar leingak asigi famthol wangba manai oiba fanglaroi haina kaihouribani. Eereipak asigi puchak pukkei marang kaina hunba ngamba afaoba machang oiba loumee oiyu haina paotak piba natte. Eereipak asigi khunnaibu potthok puthokpada meepan tangdaba machang oiba sinmee oiyu haina pukning thougatpa natte. Meenai oiyu – manai oiyu; thak khara wangna thikadargi khutchabi oiyu haina wakhal thammairibani. Adubu eikhoina khnggadabadi minai oinabagi Scheduled Tribe quota Meeteigidamak fanglabasu, maduda lairabagi saruk yaode. Amuksu khnduna yengsi; makhoina hairiba IAS haiba thabak asi leingak chupli pairibasinggi chindung makhada thabak touba clerical sinfamni. IPS hairiba asina policeman / daroga gi sinfamni. Adubu sinfam asi hwjikti inak khunba meechang leibasiggi reserved oirabani. Leibak asida corruption leiramdrabadi, anem awanggi thak khairamdrabadi, hei singba amasung touba ngambagi magun matung inna famthon pibagi chatnabi leiramlabadi; echam chamba clerk amana IAS youna kakhatpa ngamlagani, aduga, echam chamba policeman amana IPS youna kakhatpasu ngamlamgani. Adubu, hairiba sinfam animak asidi akhannaba exam gidamaka sel yamna changna matam changna sem sagadaba oiba maramna lairabasinggi saruk yaode. Sinfamsing asidi leingakna sijinnaningba mawongda sijinnariba stamp pad makhal amani. Masigi sinfam asigidamak lairabasingna meehourubagisu kannade aduga oidre haiduna ningdol pomningaisu leite.

(v) Manipur asi furup kayana khundaminnaraga semba leipakni. Mathaktasu thamkhre, Meetei khakna Manipur kanba ngamloi aduga furupki lup ama anina Manipur hektamak thugaibasu ngammoi. Eereicha tribal singgi marakta meeyoi kharana IAS / IPS oirakpada Manipur kairani khanba natragana eereicha Meetei maraktagi meeyoi kharana IAS/ IPS oirakpada Manipur knlagani khanba asidi chumloi. Leingak loisangsinggi famnaibasing meeyamgi yeknabani haina pullap eenthokkhrasi hairagana wafam amani. Natrabadi makhoibu chap mannaba meetyengda eereicha oina ooba ngamba tai. Masi khnthaba ngamdrabadi, meeyoi amabu matam khudingda magi furupki hourakfamda yumfam oiraga achan meerai nairabadi, adugumba meetyeng thamliba meeyoi adumak khunnai asibu leikha tahan-gadaba mahik amani. Nakal amaromda khndunasu yengsi. Leingak asi thikadargi leingakni. Asigumba leingak asigi khutchabi stamp pad oina sijinnariba khongmee lanmeesinggi loisanglen official thouburoi asi IAS / IPS officer sing asini. Makhoigi marakta mee oina faba, achumba kharasu toujaningba, mabukchel chaoba, hendok thoidokna leingaklonda hei singba meeyoi kaya yaorambasu yai; adubu, makhoi khudingmak system asigi manai oiba maramna thikadar leingakna haiba khuding inba tai. Asigumba famthol asibu meehoubagidamak Meeteina IAS/ IPS masing hen-gadabani haiba wafam ama meetei marakta sandokpana Manipur gi yaol gi achumba liklam oiroi.

Waroisin

Meetei Scheduled Tribe on-gadabani haiba khollao asi Manipur da Inner Line Permit System (natragana mannaba law ama) chatnahan-gadabani haiba khongjang ama changsinbagi khonghou kankhatlakpa matam (2011) aduwaida machi fonglakkhibani. Makhoigi eechang thouba thourang asi maru oina retired Indian army officer sing amasung electoral party gi luchingba oiramba meeyoi kharana houdorakkhi. Manipur tampaklamda ILPS ki khongjang kansillakpa matamda, makhoigi khongjang asisu mafei ama oina khmbrangnana fongna kankhatlakkhi. 2015 ki leibak eerang kallingei matamda Ministry of Home Affairs ki security advisor oiba meeoi amanasu ILPS ki pandam asi thoina kannaroi, Meeteina Scheduled Tribe ollaba matamdata meetop thomjillakpadagi kanba ngamgani haina press conference toukhi. Tribal singna Protection of Manipur People Bill gi mayokta eehou sagatlakpa matamdasu makhoigi khongjang asi fongna Televsion channel, video film amasung pao che singda maka fongkhi.

Matou karamna eereicha khudingmak chabak oina Scheduled Tribe on-gadouribano? Tongan tonganba furupsinggisu tonganba quota thamgadouribara? Imunggi or furupki changchat senthokki thak matung inna natraga khun khun-gi sinlamchatki chaokhatpagi thak matung inna meeyoi kanglup khaiduktuna tongan tonganba thouonggi reservation thamgadouribra? Amaromda hairaga, eereicha pumba Scheduled Tribe ollabadi, eereichasinggi marakta karamba makhalgi reservation thamgadouribano? Ereichasinggi maraktadi reservation haiba asi pungmut muthatlasi haibara? Asinachingba wafamsing makhoigi khanna neinabada mayek sengna pandari? Matang asida cheksinna yenggadabadi, khongjang asigi luchingbasing asigi hourakpham, touramba natraga touriba sinfamsing, makhoigi political saklon, chelliba paojel, masina oirakliba furup manunggi amasung maselgi marakta leirakliba wahang kaya asi karino haiba asini.

Senjao leingklon-gi mit thak-hanba khoichak amasung yonggi tanyenda eereicha khudingmak mannana chakthung fithunggani amasung chaokhatminnagani haibasi thajaba ngamde. Militarisation amasung lunkhop-project anisina loutunaduna leipakki sinlamlichat asida fivam sok-hanlaklaba matam, India gi Act East Policy gi tangkak ama oina railway-na meetopsing mapei mapei honjillakkadouraba, amasung, senjao lallonbasingna leipak asida lallonpot onthorakkadaba kuidraba tangkak amada eikhoi hingli. Safusing asi mai pakna thengnanabagi damak eikhoigi leijariba lousing, panggal amasung mahousagi resources sing asi maram chana sijinnanabagidamak thabak paikhatpa thinthaba yadraba chiraba matamni. Masigi thoudang asi punna louminnabagi mahut; niraga hing-oo, tangjaraga hing-oo, seidanglaga penjou, yong tanyenda thajaba thammu, furup masel oongkhatnaduna leiyu, mikha ponbada heinou haina tongan tonganba furupki maikhumsing kuptuna changsillakliba lallong asisu eikhoina masak khngba mathou tai.

The author can be reached at mningthouja(at)gmail(dot)com

 

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Dr. Malem Ningthouja had pursued BA (h) History from Hindu College, Delhi and had completed MA, M. Phil and Ph. D in History from the University of Delhi. He is currently a member of the Editorial Board of the journal Revolutionary Democracy, founder cum chairperson of Campaign for Peace & Democracy (Manipur), democratic platform that strives to establish Peace, Development and Unity in Manipur, founder cum Managing Trustee of the Labour Research and Organisation Foundation (LAROF) and a member of the International Coordination Committee of the International League of People’s Struggle. He has been associated with Manipur Students' Association Delhi since 1997. He is the author of Freedom From India: A History of Manipur Nationalism, Spectrum Publications 2011, Guwahati

1 COMMENT

  1. Ahaanbada eikhoi mayaam pumnamak bhaap taminnaba darakar oi haina khanjei. Numit kharanigee mamangda AMSU gi article ama phongkhibadu khannaba darakar oi haina khanjei. Madugee article duna taakpadi AMSU nattraga AMSU bu madugee article du phonghanliba mee-oi nattraga kangbu adu ‘Tribe’ haibagee wahanthok karino khangjadabara nattraga khangjannadabara haina chingnajei. Karigumba khangjannadaba kangbu oiramba taragadi khanghanbada araiba oiroi khanjei, anduna makhoigee wakhanlon karino mayamda utthokpa chumgani khanli.

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