By Dr. Robindro, June 2023.
This write-up is not going to cover the micro-incidents and sequence of recent events that lead to the current Manipur violence starting from 3rd May 2023 & onwards. However, it is an attempt to educate the public and provide some important and credible information from a bird’s eye, true events, other perspectives, and from a standpoint not explored by many. The recent riot violence in Manipur is an outcome of the cumulative incidents and true events that happened in the last 3-4 decades. Cutting short, recently, Manipur Govt. initiated the ‘War on Drugs 1.0’ in 2017 and started a crackdown on drug business and trafficking in the State. Parallelly, Govt. also started drone surveys and satellite mapping of forest lands and poppy fields, and found more than 15,000 acres of poppy fields. After the survey and very recently in 2022, the ‘War on Drugs 2.0’ was started and intensified by destroying opium poppy fields in the hills of Chandel, Churachandpur, Kangpokpi, and Tenoupal Districts. At the same time, Govt. began a physical survey of forest lands and started the eviction drive against the land encroachers in the valley and hill areas.
The destruction of poppy plantations during 2017-2023 probably angered the drug lords and mafias mostly of the Kuki community. The affected drug lords/mafias have been looking for an opportunity to topple the Govt. by creating a chaotic situation in Manipur. They found the opportunity in the ST demand of Meiteis and the High Court’s (HC) recommendation to the State Govt. to act on the letter of the Tribal Affairs Ministry (of 2013) on the decade-old ST demand of Meiteis. Using the ST issue as a perfect cover-up, student body ATSUM along with ITLF, and KSO jointly organized the peace rally on 3rd May 2023 at Churachanpur, Kangpokpi, and Chandel to oppose the HC recommendation. Meanwhile, SoO Kuki militants also joined the Peace rally with Assault rifles and Guns, along with the rallyists who got instigated and started arson at multiple locations, Torbung, Churachandpur, Moreh and Ekou etc. in the early afternoon (well-coordinated attacks on Meitei private properties). Meiteis reacted and retaliated in late evening and night, and the next day in Imphal and surrounding areas. The Rest of the violence unfolded. The aftermath and unfolding human tragedies are unprecedented in Manipur history.
After this riot in early May 2023, Meiteis were literally cleansed from the Moreh, Ekou, Kangpokpi, and Churachanpur areas. Kukis should have approached the HC or SC for a legal opposition or appeal. Instead, they chose a different and violent path. A similar violent riot/incident happened between Nagas-Kukis in 1992-93, after which Nagas were cleansed from Moreh town and surrounding areas. Minority Tamils were also cleansed from Moreh through systematic extortion of money. The true events show that there has been a systematic ethnic cleansing of minority communities in Moreh town, Kangpokpi, and Churachandpur areas in the last 3-4 decades. As a result, Nagas and Meiteis lost their ancestral lands to Kukis. Other minority communities like Gorkhas, Nepalese, Bengali, Marwalis, Biharis, etc. are also living under pressure and threat from Kuki militants in Moreh, Ccpur, Kanglatombi, and Kangpokpi areas. As per media reports, the Kuki armed groups are weaponized heavily with the massive drug money from the drug business done for decades. When one introspects and reviews the patterns and manner of Kukis aggressions and expansionism in Myanmar, Chittagong Hill Tracks (CHT), Manipur for the last 1-2 decades, it appears that Kukis are pushing for their imaginative political agenda of ‘Homeland’ called ‘Kukiland AKA Zalengam’ or Zoland (comprising parts of Bangladesh, India and Myanmar), that’s why Kukis are seen behaving in this aggressive, violent manners to their neighbouring communities and grabbing their lands. This report explains the Types of drugs, Opium poppy cultivation and its geographical affinity, Drug lords and Armed Groups, Drug Trade Value & Trafficking Routes, Geopolitical perspective and anti-India elements, and Conclusion.
Many factual information about narco-terrorism in Manipur is not known to the general public till today. It is written with a humble intention to make our people aware of and get informed of the situation and diabolical design of anti-Manipur, anti-India elements. It’s written after months of exhaustive research, and connecting several dots and true events of narco-terrorism activities across the World and Southeast Asia. During the ongoing research, this riot and violence started unfolding in Manipur. The recent violence in Manipur (in May-June 2023) is not a mere riot clash between two communities (Meiteis and Kukis). It is, in fact, an outcome of a long, larger, and more serious issue of the drug business and geopolitical elements that have been happening & ticking in Manipur and North East (NE) India. In fact, Manipur was sitting on a ticking time bomb for quite a long time which was unnoticed or neglected for many years. This write-up can not cover all the details in this single report; therefore, it will restrict to some clues, key points/words, references, links, and connections that are relevant to the current situation. Readers can easily search on the net for more details using the keywords and clues mentioned. Request all the readers to investigate further and bring out more truths, and the unseen challenges that Manipur (India) is facing from external and anti-India elements which are threatening our national security and integrity. This report will discuss many classified official reports and information from international sources (like DEA, UNODC, NAB, Reuters, BBC, The Hindu etc.) [1-7]. The opium drug business generates multi-billion-dollar drug money which is the KEY driving force for all the arms and violence in Manipur and NE. The KEY and main issue is LAND for all ethnic clashes that happened in Manipur and NE.
2. Type of Drugs derived from the Opium Poppy Plant (Morphine, Heroin, and Cocaine)
Plantation and cultivation of opium poppy plants are illegal and against the Law in all countries including USA, Europe, India and Japan etc. The origin and history of the opium poppy is another big story that includes the Opium Wars, the Silk Route, Narcotic dens in Golden Triangle & Crescent etc., for which one has to look at the report titled ‘Opium Poppy Cultivation and Heroin Processing in Southeast Asia’ published by the U.S Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) in September 1992  and the reports of United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) [2,3,4]. There are many drugs & narcotics derived from the Opium Poppy plant. The DEA report reviews in detail the complexity of natural and chemical procedures linked with heroin production in Southeast Asia. It further explains how the opium poppy plant of Southeast Asia is grown and harvested, how the poppy's opium is chemically converted into morphine, and finally how that morphine is then refined into heroin in Golden Triangle and associated narcotic factories that employ many cooks and chemists. The derivatives of opium poppy are morphine, codeine, heroin, and oxycodone. These are psychedelic drugs that cause hallucination (due to the hallucinogens) and they are also used to treat anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Other psychedelic drugs are LSD, MDMA, DMT etc. which are very popular among youngsters and film celebrities. Abuse of such drugs is very harmful to the human body.
There is another drug called Methamphetamine (Meth) which has become very popular among youngsters and celebrities across the country, NE and Manipur. This Meth is commonly known as WY (World is Yours) in Manipur, Yaba in Myanmar. Meth is a powerful synthetic drug, a highly addictive stimulant that affects the human central nervous system. It looks like glass fragments or shiny, bluish-white rocks. It is similar to amphetamine chemically, a drug used to treat Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy, a sleep disorder. Unfortunately, the WY tablets are very popular among youngsters in Manipur. There were media reports that WY tablets were seized in millions in Manipur and NE States.
3. Opium Poppy Cultivation and its Geographical Affinity in/with Manipur
The hill regions of Manipur are ideally suited for the propagation and synthesis of the opium poppy- geographically, topologically, and culturally. Although the opium poppy plant will grow remarkably well with little tending, poppy farmers (in hills) in recent years have introduced the use of fertilizers that have produced bumper crop yields in the Manipur hills. In addition, the chemicals used in the synthesis of heroin are inexpensive and readily available. At the same time, laboratory equipment needed to synthesize heroin is very basic and easily obtainable. These factors, coupled with powerful financial incentives and an absence of cultural prohibitions, clearly suggest that opium poppy cultivation and heroin synthesis in Manipur and Southeast Asia show no signs of abatement.
As per the DEA and UNODC reports [1-5], there are various stages of poppy-gum to heroin & cocaine refinery. Details of each stage are not explained here. Some of the important stages are:
3.1 Field Selection and Land Clearing
The highlands of mainland Southeast Asia, at elevations of 800 meters or more above sea level, are prime poppy growing areas. In choosing a field to grow opium poppy, soil quality and acidity are critical factors and experienced poppy fanners choose their fields carefully. In Southeast Asia, westerly orientations are typically preferred to optimize sun exposure. Most fields are on mountain slopes at elevations of 1,000 meters (3,000 feet) or more above sea level. Slope gradients of 20 degrees to 40 degrees are considered best for drainage of rainwater. Hill slope is an important factor for vegetation. In mountain areas of Manipur, virgin land is the perfect place, prepared by cutting and piling all brush, vines, and small trees in the field during March, at the end of the dry season. After allowing the brush to dry in the hot sun for several days, the field is set afire (Jhoom cultivation). Before the rainy season in May-June, fields by the thousands of acres all over the hill region are set ablaze.
3.2 Land Preparation and Cultivation Methods by Illegal Myanmar Immigrants
In October & November, toward the end of the rainy season, highland farmers in Manipur prepare fields selected for opium poppy planting. By this time, the ash resulting from the Jhoom burning of the previous dry season has settled into the soil, providing additional nutrients, especially potash. The soil is turned with long-handled hoes after it is softened by the rains. The farmers then break up the large clumps of soil. Weeds and stones are tossed aside and the ground is leveled off.
3.3 Opium Harvesting Methods
Cooking, extraction of morphine, and conversion of morphine into heroin are the key harvesting methods & processes. There are also some key chemicals used in the conversion process. However, details of key chemicals are not mentioned here. Fig.2 (Pic from DEA report 1992) shows the stages and seasons for poppy.
The opium poppy does best in temperate, warm climates with low humidity and requires only a moderate amount of water before and during the early stages of growth. In addition, the opium poppy is a "long day" photo-responsive plant. As such, poppies require long days and short nights before they will develop flowers. From the perspectives of logistics, manpower, ethnicity, climatic condition, and soil, Manipur Land suits the above conditions and is a perfect alternative place for opium poppy cultivation, Manipur also lies in the same sub-tropical region (Tropic of Cancer) as the Golden Triangle and Golden Crescent (Afghan, Iran, Pak border) as lies Sinaloa Mountain region (of Mexico) and Medellin narco fields (of Columbia).
Once poppy plants are grown after mass deforestation, the sensitive biodiversity hotspots and ecosystems of the region get damaged beyond repair. This will make Manipur region’s rich biodiversity hotpots wiped out from the World’s map of Biodiversity Hotspots, a massive loss for our State and Country.
4. Drug Lords and Armed Groups
Our data analysis and several dots indicate that the drug lords & mafias (of Manipur & NE) possibly get inspiration from the following international drug cartels and lords such as (L) Khun Sa of Shan State, who once ruled Golden Triangle with his notorious Shan State Army, Christopher Coke AKA ‘Presi’ AKA ‘Dudus’ of Jamaica and his Shower Posse Gang, El Chapo of Sinaloa cartel (of Mexico) now jailed in USA and Pablo Escobar (killed in 1993) of Medellin Cartel (Columbia) and his private army, who once threaten Columbian President from his cathedral prison. Mr. Jeon Yo-hwan (Hwang Jung-min) is a South Korean drug lord who had taken control of Suriname (a small country in South America) with his private army. He is also known as Narco-Saint as he preached to people as Pastor in a Church. He was a rich-Pastor to the public’s eye & view. Red Wa is an organized crime gang that controls Chiang Mai City (in Northern Thailand). It was reported that Red Wa has a very close association with the United Wa State Army (UWSA) which controls the Golden Triangle region presently. The present modus-operandi and drug business of UWSA is Yaba (WY or Meth). They use the Mekong River as a route for the transportation of key chemicals used in the Narcos factory and drug trafficking. The key chemicals are from China. Similarly, the Kachin Independence Army (KIA/KIO) and Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) along with its parent organization the KNU had adopted the opium poppy and other drug businesses for funding their arms and autonomy movement.
In the present Chin State of Myanmar, many Chin people cross the border for socio-cultural activities and marriages with Mizos (from Mizoram, India) without legal process and papers. Both Chin State and Mizoram are Christian States. That’s why they call themselves Chin-Mizo-Kuki (Zo) people of the same ethnicity. So, they have close affinity and sympathy towards the Chin National Army (CNA) or Chinland Defence Force (CDF) of Chin State. The CNA/CDF is also fighting the present Military Junta Govt. All these ethnic armed groups (KIA, CNA, KNLA, UWSA etc.) are fighting the Military Junta Govt. and they also support & train the People Defence Force (PDF), a pro-democratic alliance force formed under the National Unity Govt. (NUG) of Myanmar which is trying to overthrow the Military Junta. This NUG was formed after the coup and arrest of Nobel laureate Aung-San Suu Kyi, and the killing of around 3000 people during a protest against the military coup in Feb.2021. The history of violence and rebellion in Myanmar is another big chapter (not relevant & discussed now). However, the PDF cadres are trained and supported by KNO/KNA inside Manipur. As per a report of ‘India Today’, huge arms have been sent to Kuki militants from the black markets of the China- Myanmar border probably in exchange for drugs or drug money.
In Manipur, as per the report , everyone knows who is who in KNA/KNO, KRA, UPF and ZRA. Mr. Thanglianpau Guite, the present President of the Zomi Revolutionary Army (ZRA), is an ex-MP candidate in the Chin state of Myanmar. Mr. Khenchin, Vice-President cum General Secretary of the Zomi Revolutionary Army (ZRA) is also from the Chin state. Mr. P.S. Haokip, the present Chairman of the Kuki National Army (KNA) is of Burmese origin and presently sheltered in Nagaland. Mr. David Hangshing, the present President of the Kuki Revolutionary Army (KRA) is of Burmese origin and the husband of Mrs. Kimnio Haokip Hangshing, the sitting MLA of Saikul Assembly Constituency, Manipur. Mr. Thangboi Kipgen, the present Chairman of the Kuki National Front (KNF) and the United Peoples Front (UPF), also of Burmese origin, is the husband of Mrs. Nemcha Kipgen, the present Cabinet Minister, Manipur . All the above drug lords and armed groups are allegedly evolving around and living on DRUG MONEY. As reported in the media/above, they have very close ties and nexus with each other. There are media reports of the Kuki drug lords using their massive drug money to fund and support the Kuki militants for their Narco-terrorism activities in Manipur and NE. The drug lords often use the militant groups for their vested interests, protection and cross-border anti-India activities.
5. Drug Trade Value & Trafficking Routes
It is reported from many sources including some poppy growers that a half kg of poppy gum/resin will cost approx. Rs. 60,000 to 80,000/-. Such high return cost of a cash crop is the main driving force for the mass deforestation for poppy cultivation in Manipur in the last 5-10 years. The military coup in Myanmar in Feb.2021 forced many immigrants to enter Manipur. They started this cultivation in cohorts with some local kukis and drug mafias for a win-win situation. An estimated 15,000+ acres of land in Manipur hills is used for poppy cultivation. One can easily imagine the size of drug money involved. As announced by Hon’ble Home Minister, Amit Shah on NE Live TV, 26th June 2023, approx. Rs. 20,000+ crore of drug business was done through NE during 2014-2022. Such massive drug money can establish a parallel economy and do anything in India or against India. This is the main source of funding for the Kuki-Chin and other NE militants, and their modern weapons. As mentioned above, the Mekong River is used as a transport route for the key chemicals (from China) used in the Narcos factories and drug trafficking. This river has become one of the most dangerous and notorious drug routes in Asia, and it originates from China and passes through Yunnan Province, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and finally meets the South China Sea. Fig.3 shows the drug trade and trafficking routes in the World. Due to the Manipur violence, it appears that the drug trade route has shifted from the sources to the Indian sub-continent through Mizoram. There were several media reports of drug trafficking and seizure of drugs worth 100s of crores (The Hindu, June 18, 2023, NEA News Service, June 18, 2023, and by Mr. Dibya Kamal Bordoloi of Organiser.org, Jun 21, 2023). These drugs from Mizoram, Manipur reach far places like Punjab, Dehradun, Hyderabad and Mumbai, causing a large number of drug addicts. There are an estimated 1.2+ lakh drug addicts in Manipur, which includes all communities.
6. Geopolitical Perspective and Anti-India Elements
Human migration from Myanmar to India happened in different waves at different times. Cutting short, Let’s start looking at the migrations that happened after the 8888 Uprising in Myanmar in 1988. After this 8888 uprising, the first wave of illegal immigrants entered Manipur which was unaccounted or ignored or hidden or neglected (God knows why?). The second wave of immigrants entered Manipur after the military coup in Myanmar in Feb.2021. Again, they were unaccounted for, unregistered, or neglected (same Govt. attitude). The third wave happened last year in Nov-Dec. 2022 after the airstrikes by the Military Junta which targeted PDF and CNA armed groups and their camps near the Indian border. Military Junta started a crackdown with air support on ethnic rebel groups across Myanmar. Victoria Camp of Chin National Army (CNA) was hit during the airstrikes and many died. There was a media report that a bomb also fell on the Indian side (in Mizoram).
Due to the airstrikes, many Chin-Kuki people were on the run and crossed to Manipur’s southern sides and Moreh area. Along them, many PDF recruits entered the Indian border and got sheltered by KNA/KNO inside Indian territory with no due legal process and papers They are provided arms training in KNO/KNA camps at Sahei, Haolenphai etc. (close to Moreh and Border). By doing this, PDFs are in a safer place and don’t come under the airstrikes of Junta jets and helicopters anymore. Kuki armed groups, KNO/KNA, KRA, UKLF, and UPF are under the ‘Suspension of Operation’ (SoO) with the Manipur+Indian Govts. which means Indian security forces (mainly Assam Rifles) is not or cannot take any military actions against them. It is a kind of legal protection for them, under which they indulge in all anti-India activities including narco-trafficking, and supporting, and sheltering foreign militias. These events were/are happening right under the nose of Assam Rifles (AR) whose primary responsibility is to counter-insurgency, and protect Indian territory and citizens from any external aggression. And these SoO Kuki militants are paid a monthly stipend of a few thousand Rs. from Indian taxpayers’ money. Yet, they indulge in anti-national activities. Apart from these, Kukis (probably very new Kukis) started disrespecting Meitei religious sacred shrines at Koubru and Thangjing hill ranges for the last 4-5 years, they started mass deforestation and poppy plantation around these shrines, which hurts Meitei’s sentiment & makes them angry, and such things also started creating the ethnic fault-line wider between Meiteis and Kukis. Why do Kukis do this? They must answer.
Meiteis are very angry and against the above-mentioned new Myanmar immigrants and drug lords, and their disrespectful behaviour at their shrine sites/areas. The big LIE and myth about Imphal Valley having 700 sq. miles (as wrongly perceived by Kukis) is another cause of misunderstanding. The fact of the matter is that this 700 sq. miles valley also includes the areas of Churachanpur, Kangpokpi, Chakpikarong etc. (Geological data). The drug lords/mafias started exploiting the loopholes of the Indian electoral system as reported in many media e.g., the Hindu newspaper on 12th May 2023 . It is alleged that Kuki political leaders have been indulging in Vote bank politics with the unaccounted Myanmar immigrants through unethical & anti-India practices. The new Census report-2021 will give a clear picture of the exponential growth in number of Kuki population (Dhoot ka dhoot, pani ka pani ho jayega).
The true events, and dots analysis indicate that the Golden Triangle is shifting towards the favorable land in hill areas of Manipur, especially in Kuki-dominated hill areas. After the demise of drug lord Khun Sa in 2007, there was a change in the drug business model in the Golden Triangle region from Heroin to Yaba (WY or Meth) which is mainly controlled by Red Wa and UWSA. The global supply chain for cocaine and heroin was disturbed after the death of drug king Pablo Escobar, the arrest of El Chapo and the disturbance in the Golden Triangle due to massive crackdowns by the Laos & Thai governments. However, the drug demand remains very high due to the unabated and ever-increasing number of drug addicts across the globe. To fill the demand-supply gap, the fragmented drug lords in Southeast Asia find safe haven for opium cultivation and production in the fertile porous border areas of India, Bangladesh, and as well as at the fertile regions of politically unstable countries like Myanmar and Afghanistan. At present, Afghanistan is no.1 and Myanmar is no.2 opium producer in the World. One can easily imagine the danger and challenges that India faces from these two drug hotspots.
With the easy/quick, massive drug money and local support, Kuki immigrants build houses and villages in Manipur hills at a fast speed to make them look like old settlements, which ordinary Indian farmer takes years to do. The poppy growers are unaware of the drug business and side effects, they are often misled by the idea of pharma cultivation by drug mafias and transporters (drug mules). Everyone knows that the drug business is always associated with violence. There were media reports that WY tablets were found in school-going children and young girls in Manipur. This is a very serious and alarming situation for the State. A poor State like Manipur is not in a position to handle the ramifications of the Drug Trade, lords and cartels.
All the true events, sequence of events, media reports and dots indicate that some Kuki MLAs have a 1st-degree connection with Kuki armed groups and Drug Lords. From our internal, classified data analysis and interviews on YouTube channels, the suspected Narco Kings are Dr P Sayong Haokip, Chairman, KNO/KNA, Mr. Thanglianpau Guite, the present President of the Zomi Revolutionary Army (ZRA), and Narco Prince is allegedly Mr David Hangshing, Chairman, KRA, and a few high ranking Govt. officials whose names are not mentioned for security reasons. The key conspirators of the Manipur violence are among these groups of people connected with drug money. India needs to conduct a covert operation with complete secrecy, honesty and integrity to identify and punish the key conspirators as per the law. Until and unless this is done, similar problems will keep coming up and popping up again after some time to threaten our national security and integrity. Because of these small groups of drug lords/mafias and leaders, thousands of innocent ordinary Kukis and Meiteis are suffering from untold miseries and mental agony in the 300+ relief camps. Historically, Kukis used to have conflicts and problems with many neighboring ethnic people in North East India, such as the Kuki-Naga clash in 1992-93 in Manipur, the Kuki-Karbi clash in Assam in 2004, Kuki problem in Tripura etc. All the historical data analysis and true events indicate that NEW Kukis are the troublemakers and aggressors in Manipur and North East India. It appears that the very new Kukis have no love for or attachment to Manipur or India’s values & interests. Wherever they live, they poke, provoke and mess up with neighbouring communities. Maybe because of their nomadic, aggressive nature for the political agenda.
History speaks louder than words and doesn’t lie. It also appears that they give more importance & priority to their ethnicity than the State affinity and Nationality, normally it must be the other way around.
On the other hand, the following are a few reasons for mistrust of Assam Rifles (AR) by valley people in Manipur, due to long negligence on the illegal cross-border activities happening in front of AR, Manorama Rape Case, Malom public shooting case, many atrocities to civilians in past and complicit of some rouge/dirty AR officers in the drug trade. It’s similar to a famous proverb ‘A rotten apple spoils the whole basket of apples. (Army officer, five others held with drugs worth Rs 24 crore in Manipur, a media report of Times of India & India Today, 25 Feb. 2013).
By and large, Meiteis are not angry, against the ordinary Kukis and definitely NOT against the very old Kukis (settled before 1891). Meiteis are very angry with and against, the new Kukis (entered after 1961), very new Kukis (entered after the 8888 uprising), angry with Kukis associated with drug business/drug lords, SoO Kuki militants and radical Kukis for their disrespectful behavior at Meitei shrines, their complicit nature in the drug trade, diabolical design of Manipur’s disintegration, irrational thought process of homeland and Anti-India activities. Whatever, at the end, both Meiteis and Kukis will be the losers and our civilization will go back by 20-30 years again (a cycle of deprivation). Our common enemies are the drug lords/mafias, their drugs and those people who are playing the century-old divide-and-rule politics. We all have to come to true sense and think about who is playing with us, who wants us to remain poor, what’s the use, and who benefits from such conflicts.
Dear All Indians and Security agencies (NIA/CBI/RAW/IB/NAB etc.),
With due respect, please connect the dots and investigate further, You will realize the dangerous anti-India activities and conspiracy hatched using DRUG money, which is threatening our national security and integrity silently (in front of the growing China). Who wants India to bleed with 1000 cuts? How could India (with 5th largest military, and 5th largest economy in the World) keep silent on such serious national security issues? Why India’s taxpayers’ money be paid as monthly stipends to those SoO militants for their anti-Manipur, anti-Indian India and unethical activities? Please help native Manipuris to protect & defend India’s land, border, and national security, and pray for quick recovery and lasting peace.
- A Classified report on ‘Opium Poppy Cultivation and Heroin Processing in Southeast Asia,’ U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Office of Intelligence
Washington, DC 20537, (202) 307-8100, September 1992.
- ‘Colombia Coca Survey for 2004,’ published in June 2005 by UNODC. A similar report for Mexico by UNODC in 2018-19.
- UNODC report on Afghanistan: ‘Opium cultivation up nearly three times,’ 1 Nov.2022. ‘Opium Production Throughout the World,’ UNODC Report, 1949;‘Opium poppy cultivation estimates increase by 33% in Myanmar in 2022’, UNODC Report, 2022 A book on ‘Poppies, Opium and Heroin Production in Colombia and Mexico, in Apr 2018 by Guillermo Andrés Ospina, Jorge Hernández Tinajero, Martin Jelsma, Transnational Institute (tni), De Wittenstraat 25, 1052 AK Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Tel: +31-20-6626608, Fax: +31-20-6757176 E-mail: [email protected], www.tni.org/drugs
- Reuters special report on ‘Myanmar’s Opium Business,’ February 20,2012.
- ‘Drugs and Demographics in Manipur’ by The Hindu, 12th May 2023.‘Memorandum’ by the conglomeration of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) of Manipur, submitted to UN Secretary-General, 13 June,2023,
- ‘Torture to Death: Myanmar mass killings revealed,’ BBC report, 20 December 2021.
- ‘Global firms help Myanmar’s military make weapons,’ BBC Report, 16 Jan., 2023.